Herbs in Gallmet-M

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Peppermint is one of the oldest herbs used for both culinary and medicinal products. It calms the muscles of the stomach and improves the flow of bile, which the body uses to digest fats. Several studies have shown that peppermint can help treat stomach pain, bloating, and diarrhea.

Marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis)

Marshmallow root is a perennial herb that’s native to Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. It’s been used as a folk remedy for thousands of years to treat digestive, respiratory, and skin conditions. Studies show it has the potential to treat a wide range of digestive conditions, including constipation, heartburn, and intestinal colic.

White horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

White horehound is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to Europe, northern Africa, and southwestern and central Asia. The parts that grow above the ground are used to make medicine. It is used for digestion problems including diabetes, loss of appetite, indigestion, bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation, and liver and gallbladder complaints.

Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Medicinal use of licorice dates back to ancient Egypt, where the root was made into a sweet drink for pharaohs. It has also been used in traditional Chinese, Middle Eastern, and Greek medicines to soothe an upset stomach, reduce inflammation, and treat upper respiratory problems. One of liquorice’s greatest strengths is its ability to contribute towards soothing gastric and abdomen troubles including stomach ulcers, heartburn and other inflammation issues affecting the stomach.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)

Fennel is a flavorful culinary herb and medicinal plant. Both the crunchy bulb and the seeds of the fennel plant have a mild, licorice-like flavor. Yet, the flavor of the seeds is more potent due to their powerful essential oils. Aside from its many culinary uses, fennel and its seeds offer a wide array of health benefits and may provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. Fennel has been shown to help with digestion by reducing inflammation in the bowels and decreasing bacteria that cause gassiness. Studies also showed that fennel oils could help relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

Professional literature of bile acids

The international literature covers a wide range of theoretical bases, scientific studies, and practical experiences related to the active ingredients of the ingredients in the product. It is imperative to inform the conscious consumer of what you are buying.
This brochure is intended to inform consumers properly and comprehensively, and to help them make informed and informed consumer choices by outlining the literature on the physiological effects of bile acids and herbs. This information was compiled in accordance with EU Directives 2000/13 / EC and 1924/2006 / EC, keeping in mind the aim of the legislation is to provide the consumer with the most complete and detailed information possible on the product and its active substances that he intends to purchase or has already purchased. The information on the raw materials of the product is for informational purposes only and does not refer to the total product related effects that are specifically found in the product information.

Contact your doctor if you have any health problems.

  1. Dr. Klára Gyurcsovicsa, Dr. LÓRÁND BERTÓK † professor: Pathophysiology of psoriasis: coping endotoxins with bile acid therapy
    Source: Pathophysiology 10 (2003) 57-61 – 2003
  2. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor: 500 Greatest Geniuses Of the 21st Century
    Source: American Biographical Institute – Unknown
  3. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor: Bile acids in phisico-chemical host defence
    Source: Pathophyisology 11 (2004) 139-145 – 2004
  4. Gyurcsovics Klára dr és Bertók Lóránd † dr.: Pathophysiology of psoriasis – coping endotoxins with bile acid therapy
    Source: Pathophyisology 10 (2003) 57-61 – 2003
  5. I. BERCZI, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †, AND T. BEREZNAI: Comparative studies on the toxicity of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in various animal species
    Source: Department of Pathophyisology / Hungarian Academy of Scientist – 1965
  6. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor: Conference on immunological and pathological effects of bacterial endotoxins
  7. IJ. ELENKOV, J. KISS, E. STARK, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: CRF-dependent and CRF-independent mechanisms involved in hypophysial-adrenal system activation by bacterial endotoxin
    Source: Acta Physiologica Hungarica, Volume 79 (4), pp, 355-363 (1992) – 1992
  8. GY. SZŐCS, TERÉZ CSORDÁS and LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: Effect of Bacterial Endotoxin on Placentation of Rats
    Source: Acta Chirurgica Hungarica, 31 (2), pp. 169—174 (1990) – 1990
  9. C. SIMON, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †, M. WINTER und E. MORAY A: The pathophysiology of LPS endotoxins
    Source: Akadémai Kiadó Budapest – 1965
  10. H. SELYE, B. TUCHWEBER, AND LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: Effect of Lead Acetate on the Susceptibility of Rats to Bacterial Endotoxins
    Source: Journal of Bacteriology Vol. 91, No. 2 Printed in U.S.A. – 1966
  11. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor: The effect of sulfhydryl comfound on the lead acetate induced endotoxin hypersensitivity of rats
    Source: National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary – 1968
  12. I. BERCZI, T. BEREZNAY: Stybility of the toxic and serological properties of k. coli endotoxin in the intestinal tract of rats
  13. I. BERCZI, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †, K. BAINTNER and B. VERESS: Experiments to induce endotoxintolerance and toxic effects by peroraixy administered e. coli endotoxin in rats
    Source: Annales Immologiae Hungaricae – 1968
  14. LÓRÁND BERTÓK † and B. TÓTH: Studies on the pathogenesis of the edema disease of swine
    Source: A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Állatorvostudományi Közleményei – 1965
  15. E. Gilad, B. Zingarelli, M. O’Connor, A. L. Salzman, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †, C. Szabó: Effects of radiodetoxifiecf endotoxin on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages and in endotoxin shock
    Source: Journal of Endotoxin Research (1996) 3(6), 513-519 Pearson Professional Ltd – 1996
  16. ALFREDATEMESI , LÓRÁND BERTÓK † and S. PELLET: Stimulation of human peripheral lymphocytes with endotoxin and radiodetoxified endotoxin
    Source: Acta Microbiologica Hungarica 30 (1), pp. 13—17 (1983) – 1983
  17. GY. SZŐCS, TERÉZ CSORDÁS and LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: Effect of Bacterial Endotoxin on Placentation of Rats
    Source: Acta Chirurgica Hungarica, 31 (2), pp. 169—174 (1990) – 1990
  18. GY. SZŐCS, TERÉZ CSORDÁS and LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: Influence of experimentally induced endotoxemias on the thyroid function of rats
    Source: Acta Physiologica Hungarica, Volume 76 (2), pp. 137—141 (1990) – 1990
  19. I. J. Elenkov, K. Kovács, J. Kiss, LÓRÁND BERTÓK † and E. S. Vizi: Lipopolysaccharide is able to bypass corticotrophin-releasing factor in affecting plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels: evidence from rats with lesions of the paraventricular nucleus
    Source: Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 133,231-236 – 1992
  20. KRISZTINA GÁL and LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: The effect of x-radiation on reticuloendothelial system and its treatment with radiodetoxified-endotoxin and trace elements in rats
    Source: Acta Microbiologic etlmmunologica Hungarica, 41 (4), pp. 457-463 (1994) – 1994
  21. E. Gilad, B. Zingarelli, M. O’Connor, A. L. Salzman, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †, C. Szabó: Effects of radiodetoxifiecf endotoxin on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages and in endotoxin shock
    Source: Journal of Endotoxin Research (1996) 3(6), 513-519 Pearson Professional Ltd – 1996
  22. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor (Doctor of Medicine (MTA), Honorary Professor: Role of endotoxins and bile acids in the pathogenesis of septic circulatory shock
    Source: National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest – 1997
  23. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor (Doctor of Medicine (MTA), Honorary Professor: Endotoxins and endocrine system
    Source: Domestic animal endocrinology Vol. 15(5):305-303, 1998 – 1998
  24. Donna A Chow, LÓRÁND BERTÓK †: Vol5 Natural Immunity
    Source: NeuroImmune Biology – 2005
  25. ISTVÁN BERCZI, LÓRAND BERTÓK and DONNA A. CHOW: Host Defence: An Interaction of Neuroendocrine-, Metabolic- and Immune Mechanisms in the Interest of Survival
    Source: Natural Immunity – 2005
  26. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor (Doctor of Medicine (MTA), Honorary Professor: The Role of Bile Acids in Natural Resistance: Physico-Chemical Host Defence
    Source: Natural Immunity – 2005
  27. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor (Doctor of Medicine (MTA), Honorary Professor: New Prospect for the Enhancement of Natural Immunity.
    Source: Natural Immunity – 2005
  28. Dr. Bertók Lóránd † professor (Doctor of Medicine (MTA), Honorary Professor: Radio-detoxified endotoxin activates natural immunity: A review
    Source: Pathophysiology 12 (2005) 85-95 – 2005
  29. Science Daily: Fountain of youth in bile? Longevity molecule identified
    Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100915100935.htm – 2010
  30. Alexander A. Goldberg, Vincent R. Richard, Pavlo Kyryakov, Simon D. Bourque, Adam Beach, Michelle T. Burstein, Anastasia Glebov, Olivia Koupaki, Tatiana Boukh-Viner, Christopher Gregg, Mylene Juneau, Ann M. English, David Y. Thomas and Vladimir I. Titorenko: Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TORindependent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes
    Source: AGING, July 2010, Vol. 2. No 7 – 2010
  31. Alexander A. Goldberg, Pavlo Kyryakov, Simon D. Bourque and Vladimir I. Titorenko: Xenohormetic, hormetic and cytostatic selective forces driving longevity at the ecosystemic level
    Source: AGING, August 2010, Vol. 2. No 8 – 2010
  32. Unknown: Bile salts
    Source: http://digitalnaturopath.com/treat/T143745.html – Unknown
  33. DENNIS STAMP AND GARETH JENKINS: An Overview of Bile-Acid Synthesis, Chemistry and Function
    Source: Issues in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008 – 2008
  34. Erwin H. Mosbach: Bile Acid Sulfonates: Are They Useful?
    Source: Lipid Research Laboratory-Department of Surgery Beth Israel Medical Center New York. NY. U.S.A. – Unknown
  35. Tiangang Li and John Y. L. Chiang: Regulation of Bile Acid and Cholesterol Metabolism by PPARs
    Source: Hindawi Publishing Corporation PPAR Research Volume 2009, Article ID 501739, 15 pages – 2009
  36. John Y. L. Chiang: Bile Acid Regulation of Gene Expression: Roles of Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    Source: The Endocry Society, Endocr. Rev. 2002 23: 443-463 – 2002
  37. Allan W. Wolkoff and David E. Cohen: Hepatocyte transport of bile acids
    Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284: G175–G179, 2003 – 2003
  38. Michael Fuchs: Regulation of bile acid synthesis: past progress and future challanges
    Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284:G551-G557, 2003 – 2003
  39. John Y. L. Chiang: Bile acids and nuclear receptors
    Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284:G349-G356, 2003 – 2003
  40. Unknown: Monograph: Taurine
    Source: Alternative Medicine Review Volume6, Number1 – 2001 – 2001
  41. Barbara L. Minton, citizen journalist: Taurine Keeps Immune Systems Strong and Protects Organs
    Source: NaturalNews.com printable article – 2009
  42. Unknown: Taurine benefits
    Source: http://www.ihealthdirectory.com/taurine/ – 2010
  43. Unknown: Taurine’s health benefits
    Source: http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/taurine.htm – 2009
  44. Lee R. Hagey, Diane L. Crombie, Edgard Espinosa, r Martin C. Carey, Hirotsune Igimi and Alan F. Hofmann: Ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 34, 1993 – 1993
  45. M. Huertas, L. Hagey, A. F. Hofmann, J. Cerda, A. V. M. Canário and P. C. Hubbard: Olfactory sensitivity to bile fluid and bile salts in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) suggests a ‘broad range’ sensitivity not confined to those produced by conspecifics alone
    Source: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 308-317 Published by The Company of Biologists 2010 – 2010
  46. R. J. BRIDGWATER, G. A. D. HASLEWOOD AND JENNIFER R. WATT: Comparative Studies of Bile Salts – 17. A bile alcohol from chimaera monstrosa
    Source: Biochem. J. (1963) 87, 28 – 1963
  47. G. A. D. HASLEWOOD Guy’8 Hospital Medical School, S.E. 1: Comparative Studies of ‘Bile Salts’ – 5. Bile salts of crocodylidae
    Source: Biochem. J. Vol52. – Unknown
  48. I. G. ANDERSON AND G. A. D. HASLEWOOD – Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London S.E. 1: Comparative Studies of ‘Bile Salts – 16-Deoxymyxinol, a second bile alcohol from hagfish
    Source: Biochem. J. (1969) 112, 763 – 1969
  49. By G. A. D. HASLEWOOD – Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London, S.E. 1: Comparative Studies of ‘Bile Salts – Myxinol disulphate, the principal bile salt of hagfish (myxinidae)
    Source: Biochem. J. (1966) 100, 233 – 1966
  50. I. G. ANDERSON AND G. A. D. HASLEWOOD GUy’s Hospital Medical School, London, S.E. 1 AND A. D. CROSS AND L. TOK19S Institute of Steroid Chemistry, Syntex Re8earch, Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.A.: New Evidence for the Structure of Myxinol
    Source: Biochem. J. (1967) 104, 1061 – 1967
  51. G. A. D. HASLEWOOD – Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London, S.E.l., England: Bile salt evolution
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 8, 1967 – 1967
  52. G. A. D. HASLEWOOD: Bile acids of the leopard seal, hydrurga leptonyx, and of two snakes of the genus bitis*
    Source: Biochem. J. (1961) 78, 352 – 1961
  53. G. A. D. HASLEWOOD – Emiritus Professor o/ Biochemistry in llie University of London: The biological importance of bile salts
    Source: North-holland research monographs frontiers of biology – volume 47 – 1961
  54. Antonio Moschetta, Fang Xu, Lee R. Hagey, Gerard P. van Berge-Henegouwen, Karel J. van Erpecum, Jos F. Brouwers, Jonathan C. Cohen, Molly Bierman, Helen H. Hobbs, Joseph H. Steinbach and Alan F. Hofmann: A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research Volume 46, 2005 – 2005
  55. Heidi C. Shea, Daphne D. Head, Kenneth D. R. Setchell, and David W. Russell: Analysis of HSD3B7 knockout mice reveals that a 3 -hydroxyl stereochemistry is required for bile acid function
    Source: PNAS July 10, 2007 vol. 104 no. 28 – 2007
  56. S. S. Alil, H. Farhatl, and William H. Elliott: Bile acids. XLIX. Allocholic acid, the major bile acid of Uromastix hardwickii
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research Volume 17,1976 – 1976
  57. Alan F. Hofmann, Lee R. Hagey and Matthew D. Krasowski: Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary signifi cance
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research Volume 51, 2010 – 2010
  58. Kerstin Lundell, Ronnie Hansson, and Kjell Wikvall: Cloning and Expression of a Pig Liver Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid 6a-Hydroxylase (CYP4A21)
    Source: The journal of biological chemistry Vol. 276, No. 13, Issue of March 30, pp. 9606–9612, 2001 – 2001
  59. Sofia Morais, Anja Knoll-Gellida, Michele André, Christophe Barthe and Patrick J. Babin: Conserved expression of alternative splicing variants of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 in vertebrates and developmental and nutritional regulation in fish
    Source: Physiol Genomics 28: 239–252, 2007. – 2007
  60. Erica J. Reschly,Ni Ai, Sean Ekins, William J. Welsh, Lee R. Hagey,Alan F. Hofmann, and Matthew D. Krasowski: Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research Volume 49, 2008 – 2008
  61. Margrit Schwarz, Erik G. Lund, Richard Lathe§, Ingemar Björkhem and David W. Russell: Identification and Characterization of a Mouse Oxysterol 7a-Hydroxylase cDNA
    Source: The journal of biological chemistry Vol. 272, No. 38, Issue of September 19, pp. 23995–24001, 1997 – 1997
  62. Steve Meaney: Is C-26 hydroxylation an evolutionarily conserved steroid inactivation mechanism?
    Source: The FASEB Journal • Hypothesis Vol. 19 August 2005 – 2005
  63. K. V. Venkatachalam, Domingo E. Llanos, Kristophe J. Karami and Vladimir A. Malinovskii: Isolation, partial purification, and characterization of a novel petromyzonol sulfotransferase from Petromyzon marinus (lamprey) larval liver
    Source: Journal of Lipid Research Volume 45, 2004 – 2004
  64. Elson Haas M. MD: Amino Acids: Taurine
    Source: http://www.healthy.net/Health/Article/Taurine/1971 – Unknown
  65. Unknown: Taurine
    Source: https://www.exrx.net/Nutrition/Supplements/Taurine – Unknown
  66. Michael Lam, MD, MPH: Taurine. How This Particular Supplement Can Improve Your Adrenals
    Source: https://www.drlam.com/blog/taurine-supplement/1223/ – Unknown
  67. Jan Annigan: Beef bile supplement https://www.livestrong.com/article/549878-beef-bile-supplement/Unknown
  68. Unknown: Taurine’s health benefits
    Source: http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/taurine.htm – 2009
  69. Unknown: What is Taurine?
    Source: https://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-taurine.htm – Unknown
  70. P. Haines Ely, MD: Is psoriasis a bowel disease? Successful treatment with bile acids and bioflavonoids suggests it is
    Source: Clinics in Dermatology (2018) 36, 376–389 – 2018
  71. Schupp AK, Trilling M, Rattay S, Le-Trilling VTK, Haselow K, Stindt J, Zimmermann A, Häussinger D, Hengel H, Graf D.: Bile acids act as soluble host restriction factors limiting cytomegalovirus replication in hepatoytes
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170759 – 2016
  72. Stefano Fiorucci, Michele Biagioli, Angela Zampella, and Eleonora Distrutti: Bile Acids Activated Receptors Regulate Innate Immunity
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099188/ – 2018
  73. Huan Yan, Bo Peng, Yang Liu, Guangwei Xu, Wenhui He, Bijie Ren, Zhiyi Jing, Jianhua Sui, and Wenhui Li: Viral Entry of Hepatitis B and D Viruses and Bile Salts Transportation Share Common Molecular Determinants on Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3957944/ – 2014
  74. John Y. L. Chiang: Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling
    Source: Compr Physiol. 2013 July ; 3(3): 1191–1212.” – 2013
  75. Yunjeong Kim and Kyeong-Ok Chang: Inhibitory Effects of Bile Acids and Synthetic Farnesoid X Receptor Agonists on Rotavirus Replication
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209393/ – 2011
  76. Ling Luo, Weili Han, Jinyan Du, Xia Yang, Mubing Duan, Chenggang Xu, Zhenling Zeng, Weisan Chen and Jianxin Chen: Chenodeoxycholic Acid from Bile Inhibits Influenza A Virus Replication via Blocking Nuclear Export of Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170759 – 2016
  77. Omata M , Yoshida H, Toyota J, Tomita E, Nishiguchi S, Hayashi N, Iino S, Makino I, Okita K, Toda G, Tanikawa K, Kumada H; Japanese C-Viral Hepatitis Network.”: A large-scale, multicentre, double-blind trial of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis C
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17573387 – 2007
  78. Mei Lan Chen, Kiyoshi Takeda and Mark S. Sundrud: Emerging roles of bile acids in mucosal immunity and inflammation
    Source: Mucosal Immunology (2019) 12:851–861; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-019-0162-4″ – 2019
  79. Harward Medical School: Bile acids may help regulate gut immunity and inflammation
    Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200103141047.htm – 2020
  80. Sandor Sipka (University of Debrecen), Geza Bruckner (University of Kentucky): The Immunomodulatory Role of Bile Acids
    Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266582501_The_Immunomodulatory_Role_of_Bile_Acids – 2014
  81. Uchida A, Yamada T, Hayakawa T, Hoshino M.: Taurochenodeoxycholic acid ameliorates and ursodeoxycholic acid exacerbates small intestinal inflammation
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9176237 – 1997
  82. Jing Wang, Richard A. Flavell, Hua-Bing Li: Antiviral immunity: a link to bile acids
    Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-019-0148-5
  83. Baglivo M, Baronio M, Natalini G, Beccari T, Chiurazzi P, Fulcheri E, Petralia PP, Michelini S, Fiorentini G, Miggiano GA, Morresi A, Tonini G, Bertelli M: Natural small molecules as inhibitors of coronavirus lipid-dependent attachment to host cells: a possible strategy for reducing SARS-COV-2 infectivity?
    Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32191676
  84. Yan-Chao Li, Wan-Zhu Bai, Tsutomu Hashikawa: The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients
    Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jmv.25728
  85. Gu J et al., Xiao F et al: Dietary therapies induce rapid response in pediatric Crohn’s
    Source: https://www.healio.com/gastroenterology/inflammatory-bowel-disease
  86. David Wild: COVID-19 Infects GI Tract, a Possible Route of Viral Transmission
  87. Peter Hegyi, Jozsef Maléth, Julian R. Walters, Alan F. Hofmann, and Stephen J. Keely: GUTS AND GALL: Bile acids in regulation of intestinal epithelial function in health and disease
    Source: https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.00054.2017
  88. Stefano Fiorucci1, Michele Biagioli, Angela Zampella, Eleonora Distrutti: Bile Acids Activated Receptors Regulate innate immunity
    Source: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01853/full
  89. International studies about the health indication fields of bile acids: PubMed, The Lancet, BMJ, NEJM
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